Ankle injury
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Ankle injury

Other Resources UpToDate PubMed


Damage to ankle from bending or rotational forces, blunt trauma, falling, twisting, rolling, sporting accidents, improper footwear, and overuse. The general category of ankle injury may be further divided into sprains, strains, fractures, and cartilage, ligament, or tendon injuries. The most common signs and symptoms include ankle or foot pain, tissue or joint swelling, tenderness, inability to support weight, and limited range of motion.

Physical examination evaluates ankle stability, swelling, deformity, and extent of other injuries. Clinical rules are available to minimize use of x-rays, including Low Risk Ankle Rule (LRAR), Ottawa ankle rules, and two-part malleolar zone rules.

Management depends on the type, location, and severity of ankle injury and can range from modifying activity, ice, compression, and elevation (MICE mnemonic) to rest, wrapping, bracing, taping, physical therapy, and proprioceptive exercises for ankle sprain. Ankle fracture may be classified by the Salter-Harris scale, and management ranges from immobilization, bracing, splint, air cast, and tubular wrap, to surgical reduction, instrumentation, and casting.

Treatment of pain and inflammation usually involves analgesics (resources for opioid prescribing guidelines, as well as nonopioid alternatives, can be found here).

Related topics: Ankle fracture, Ankle sprain, Dislocation of ankle, Syndesmosis injury


S99.919A – Unspecified injury of unspecified ankle, initial encounter

125603006 – Injury of ankle


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Last Updated:11/13/2018
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Ankle injury
Copyright © 2023 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.