Type II CM is usually diagnosed in infants and young children. It is almost always associated with myelomeningocele (spina bifida). Manifestations in infants include dysphagia and difficulty feeding, stridor, episodes of apnea, and extremity weakness due to brainstem dysfunction. Manifestations in childhood include progressive hydrocephalus and syringomyelia; scoliosis may occur.
Common complaints in children include severe head and neck pain, occipital headache, blurred vision, dizziness, balance issues, and spasticity. Type II CM often results in the development of a syrinx (a fluid-filled cavity in the spinal cord). More severe symptoms include limb weakness, changes in breathing patterns (apnea), or abnormal eye movements (nystagmus).
Q07.00 – Arnold-Chiari syndrome without spina bifida or hydrocephalus
Q07.01 – Arnold-Chiari syndrome with spina bifida
Q07.02 – Arnold-Chiari syndrome with hydrocephalus
Q07.03 – Arnold-Chiari syndrome with spina bifida and hydrocephalus
373587001 – Chiari malformation type II
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls