Balamuthia mandrillaris infection
Balamuthia infection is more common in North and South America and typically affects children and, in the United States, adult males of Hispanic descent. Balamuthia can affect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Of note, transmission through organ transplantation has been reported with an incubation period of 17-24 days. A history of swimming in lakes, ponds, and swimming pools may be elicited.
B60.11 – Meningoencephalitis due to Acanthamoeba (culbertsoni)
230187000 – Granulomatous amebic encephalitis
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
- Acanthamoeba infection – Also causes GAE and keratitis. Skin involvement is absent. Acanthamoeba trophozoites are difficult to distinguish histologically from Balamuthia trophozoites.
- Granulomatous rosacea
- Fusarium infection
- Cutaneous leishmaniasis
- Squamous cell carcinoma
- Granulomatosis with polyangiitis