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Contributors: Anusha Patil BA, Aabra Ahmed MD, Danielle Wilbur MD
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Causes / typical injury mechanism: Camptodactyly is a congenital condition that can result from anatomic abnormalities within the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) insertion, anomalous lumbrical insertion, or contracture of skin / fascia.

Classic history and presentation: Camptodactyly is present at birth and is more often bilateral than unilateral, with 33% of cases being unilateral and 66% of cases being bilateral. It usually occurs in the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of the small finger.

  • Occurs in less than 1% of the population.
  • Age – Present at birth.
  • Sex / gender – There is no gender predilection; there can be autosomal dominant inheritance.
Risk factors: Most cases are sporadic; however, 30% of cases are associated with familial history due to autosomal dominant inheritance. It can also be associated with certain syndromes.

Pathophysiology: Abnormal insertion of FDS or lumbricals.

Grade / classification system: Benson classification
Type I:
  • Most common type.
  • Generally affects the small finger.
  • Equal distribution between males and females.
Type II:
  • Occurs in childhood, typically between the ages of 7 and 11 years.
  • It is more common in females.
  • This type does not resolve on its own.
Type III:
  • Seen at birth and usually affects several fingers.
  • It is usually bilateral and has more severe features.
  • This type is associated with syndromes.


Q68.1 – Congenital deformity of finger(s) and hand

1162716000 – Camptodactyly of finger

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Last Reviewed:08/23/2022
Last Updated:09/15/2022
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