Cerebral edema is characterized by blurred vision, intracranial hypertension, headache, and loss of consciousness. Other common signs and symptoms are nausea, vomiting, sudden elevated blood pressure, mental status alteration, and decreased heart rate. It presents a life-threatening medical emergency leading to herniation, coma, and brain death.
Causes include severe brain trauma, ischemic stroke, meningitis, encephalitis, hepatic encephalopathy, brain cancer, diabetic ketoacidosis, eclampsia, or cerebral infarction. It also occurs as a form of high-altitude edema. Cerebral edema may occur in infants and adults.
Management aims to reduce intracranial pressure and excess brain fluid and includes corticosteroids, osmotic agents, diuretics, inotropics and other pharmacotherapy, decompression, and surgery.
G93.6 – Cerebral edema
2032001 – Cerebral Edema
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
Drug Reaction Data