Symptoms of right heart failure include chest pain, fatigue, syncope, dyspnea on exertion, cough, hypoxemia, hemoptysis, cyanosis, peripheral edema, and other symptoms of congestion. Acute presentations may also present with pallor, diaphoresis, hypotension, and tachycardia due to the decrease in preload to the left ventricle. Chronic presentations are harder to detect and may present with clubbed fingernails, wheezing, crepitations, papilledema, tender hepatomegaly, and ascites.
Treatment and prognosis depend on the causal underlying disease.
Risk factors depend on the underlying disease. For instance, for group 1 idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, risk factors include age and sex (ie, young women) and family history. Other causes of pulmonary hypertension, such as COPD or sleep apnea, may be caused by excessive smoking or obesity, respectively.
The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies pulmonary hypertension into 5 groups:
- Group 1: Pulmonary arterial hypertension
- Group 2: Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease
- Group 3: Pulmonary hypertension due to lung disease and/or chronic hypoxia
- Group 4: Pulmonary hypertension due to blood clots in the lungs
- Group 5: Pulmonary hypertension due to blood and other disorders