Endometrial carcinomas are more common in women of European descent and more likely to develop after menopause.
Most commonly, endometrial carcinoma develops in conditions that expose the uterus to estrogen, either for very prolonged periods of time, without opposing progesterone, or both. As such, obesity, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2, anovulation, nulliparity, tamoxifen use (in postmenopausal woman), prolonged hormone replacement therapy with estrogen alone, and early menarche or late menopause are all variably potent risk factors for endometrial carcinoma.
There are genetic syndromes that predispose women to endometrial carcinoma, particularly Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer). This autosomal dominant syndrome should be strongly considered in women diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma before age 50. Lynch syndrome should also be suspected when the patient has a family history of endometrial, colorectal, ovarian, intestinal, or renal cancers.
Related topic: uterine cancer
C55 – Malignant neoplasm of uterus, part unspecified
254878006 – Endometrial Carcinoma
- Atrophic postmenopausal bleeding – Thin endometrial stripe on ultrasound.
- Endometrial hyperplasia (benign or premalignant)
- Endometrial polyp – May appear as thickened endometrial stripe on transvaginal ultrasound. Saline sonohysterogram can help identify.
- Anovulatory bleeding in premenopausal woman – Will usually have irregular menses.
- Intracavitary leiomyoma (fibroid) – May be seen on transvaginal ultrasound and/or saline sonohysterogram.
- Coagulation disorders (inborn or iatrogenic)