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Enteroviral infection in Infant/Neonate
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Enteroviral infection in Infant/Neonate

Contributors: Craig N. Burkhart MD, Dean Morrell MD, Lowell A. Goldsmith MD, MPH
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed


Neonatal enterovirus infection can range from asymptomatic infection to overwhelming sepsis and death. Severe disease may include hepatic necrosis with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), meningoencephalitis, and myocarditis. The disseminated form with hepatic failure and myocarditis is often fatal. Case fatality rates of 0%-42% have been reported. In one series of 146 neonatal infections, 61 had aseptic meningitis, 43 had a nonspecific febrile illness, and 42 had hepatic necrosis with coagulopathy.

Note: In 2022 and 2023, pediatric invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infections and noninvasive group A streptococcal infection cases have been associated with respiratory infections due to enterovirus among other viruses. Concurrent or preceding viral infections, including varicella (chickenpox), may increase risk for iGAS infection. Severe outcomes of iGAS infections include necrotizing fasciitis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, and death.


A08.39 – Other viral enteritis
B30.3 – Acute epidemic hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (enteroviral)

53648006 – Enteroviral infection

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Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls

  • Viral exanthem
  • Neonatal bacterial sepsis
  • Exanthematous drug eruption
  • Neonatal herpes simplex virus or Disseminated herpes simplex virus
  • Roseola
  • Measles
  • Acute meningococcemia

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Last Updated:04/06/2023
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Enteroviral infection in Infant/Neonate
A medical illustration showing key findings of Enteroviral infection (Enteroviral Manifestations) : Febrile
Clinical image of Enteroviral infection - imageId=1508508. Click to open in gallery.  caption: 'A vesiculated and crusted erythematous plaque and similar surrounding papules on the cheek.'
A vesiculated and crusted erythematous plaque and similar surrounding papules on the cheek.
Copyright © 2024 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.