Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2
HTLV-2 does not cause hematologic malignancies; however, like HTLV-1, it can cause HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM), otherwise known as tropical spastic paresis, in approximately 2% of infected individuals. HAM is characterized by slow-onset weakness and spasticity in the lower extremities, hyperreflexia, back pain with urinary frequency / incontinence, paresthesias, and sensory changes. The upper limbs are spared.
HTLV-2 may also have immunomodulating effects, as it is associated with common infections of the airway (eg, bronchitis, pneumonia) as well as urinary tract infections.
B97.34 – Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, type II [HTLV-II] as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere
425740005 – Human T-lymphotropic virus 2 infection
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
- Disseminated viral infection – human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), disseminated herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B virus, or hepatitis C virus
- Aplastic anemia
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
- Cauda equina syndrome or conus medullaris syndrome
- Multiple sclerosis