Lower back injury
Injury may be caused by acute trauma, falls, chronic repetitive motions, poor posture, hyperextension, or a degenerative condition. Some cases are idiopathic. Risk factors include obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, sporting activities, heavy backpacks, and strenuous work.
A common occupational injury, especially in occupations in which employees are required to lift heavy objects, maintain awkward positions, or perform repetitive tasks. Occupational injury is preventable with appropriate training and equipment. When applicable, equipment must be fitted to the employee since ill-fitting equipment can cause injury. Regular exercise helps prevent this type of injury and/or neurologic dysfunction.
Management may include rest, physical therapy, massage, anti-inflammatory or analgesic medication (resources for opioid prescribing guidelines, as well as nonopioid alternatives, can be found here), or surgery. Some injuries are self-limited and resolve within weeks to months, but other cases may result in chronic pain (lasting longer than 3 months).
- Apophyseal ring fracture
- Cauda equina syndrome
- Facet syndrome
- Lumbar disk herniation
- Lumbar strain or contusion
- Osteoporotic compression fracture
- Piriformis syndrome
- Radiculopathy, including sciatica
- Spinal cord compression
- Spinal cord injury
- Spinal stenosis
S39.92XA – Unspecified injury of lower back, initial encounter
282766005 – Lower back injury