Many patients are asymptomatic, or they may present with findings related to hypercalcemia, including nausea, weakness, pruritus, anorexia, fatigue, headache, mental status alteration, myalgia, and insomnia. Laboratory test results may reveal hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia.
Therapy is the removal of the source of extra calcium and treatment with non-thiazide diuretics and isotonic saline.
E83.52 – Hypercalcemia
43258006 – Milk alkali syndrome
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
- Primary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism
- Ectopic secretion of parathyroid hormone-related peptide by renal cell carcinomas or squamous cell malignancies, most commonly of the lung or head and neck
- Hematologic malignancy
- Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia – fractional excretion of calcium will be low
- Immobilization – may cause increased bone turnover
- Lithium therapy
- Vitamin D intoxication
Drug Reaction Data