Alerts and Notices
SynopsisOsteoarthritis is a progressive, degenerative joint disease caused by destruction of joint cartilage and subsequently underlying bone. It is the most common form of arthritis and is thought to be caused by biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage with ongoing use. Common areas of occurrence are the hands, spine, hips, and knees.
Although most patients present with joint pain, stiffness (limited range of motion), tenderness, and lack of flexibility, the age of presentation and temporal progression of disease is variable, driven in part by use / overuse. Joint bones may rub against each other, creating a grating sound, or small bone fragments may form spurs in the joints. Factors affecting deterioration of joint cartilage are older age, obesity, certain occupations, family history, and congenital bone malformations. Associated illnesses are diabetes, gout, and rheumatoid arthritis.
While there is currently no cure for osteoarthritis, there are treatments to reduce pain and increase joint movement. Weight loss, exercise, and other lifestyle changes are the first line of care. Pain-relieving or anti-inflammatory drugs, physical or occupational therapy, patient education, and orthotic or orthopedic supports are forms of conservative management. Corticosteroid injections, surgical procedures, and joint replacement surgery can be helpful in managing pain and maintaining range of motion as the disease progresses.
M19.90 – Unspecified osteoarthritis, unspecified site
396275006 – Osteoarthritis
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Septic arthritis
- Psoriatic arthritis
- Hemochromatosis-related joint disease (see hemochromatosis)
- Synovial chondromatosis