Osteoporosis is classified into two categories, primary and secondary. Primary is the most common and includes postmenopausal, age-related, and idiopathic osteoporosis. Secondary refers to bone loss caused by an underlying condition such as cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, certain drugs, chronic kidney disease, and endocrine disorders.
Treatment attempts to maintain function, current bone mass, and prevent fractures and pain. It includes calcium and vitamin D supplementation, prescription therapy, and lifestyle changes.
Prevention of fractures with bisphosphonates has been shown most clearly in patients with osteoporosis, which is defined either by a bone-density T score of less than −2.5 or by the presence of prevalent vertebral fractures. The efficacy of continuation of bisphosphonate therapy after 5 years is still under consideration. Whether bisphosphonates are efficacious in patients with osteopenia alone is uncertain.
M81.0 – Age-related osteoporosis without current pathological fracture
M81.8 – Other osteoporosis without current pathological fracture
64859006 – Osteoporosis
- Drug-induced bone mineral loss (eg, antiestrogens)
- Nutritional deficiency (eg, calcium or vitamin D)
- Anorexia nervosa
- Renal osteodystrophy
- Aromatase deficiency
- Alcohol use disorder
- Paget disease of the bone
- Osteogenesis imperfecta
- Collagen disorders (eg, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome)
- Pathologic fracture
- Malignancy (particularly primary bone, hematopoietic, metastasis to bone, neuroendocrine)
- Marfan syndrome
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Systemic mastocytosis
- Cushing syndrome
- Avascular necrosis