Primary aldosteronism, also known as primary hyperaldosteronism and Conn syndrome, is an adrenal gland disorder characterized by overproduction of aldosterone, resulting in sodium and water retention, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. Notably the clinical presentation of primary aldosteronism is highly variable, with the majority of affected patients presenting with normokalemia rather than hypokalemia. Adrenal gland adenoma and adrenal gland hyperplasia can cause this condition.
Screening should be considered in hypertensive patients with hypokalemia or low-dose diuretic induced hypokalemia, severe hypertension, those with hypertension and an adrenal incidentaloma, and patients with hypertension and a positive family history for primary aldosteronism, early onset hypertension, or stroke.
ICD10CM: E26.09 – Other primary hyperaldosteronism
SNOMEDCT: 190507007 – Primary hyperaldosteronism
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
Differential diagnoses of hypertension and hypokalemia: