The toxic mechanism of stibine is not clear but likely involves inhibition of enzymes that protect the body from oxidative stress.
Acute stibine poisoning is a cause of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, arrhythmia, and hemolysis. Chronic exposure (often in the workplace) can cause pneumonitis, dermatitis, and headache.
Treatment is supportive, utilizing intravenous (IV) fluids, electrolyte supplementation, and blood transfusion. Stibine poisoning is not typically lethal if supportive care is provided.
T59.91XA – Toxic effect of unspecified gases, fumes and vapors, accidental (unintentional), initial encounter
243055004 – Poisoning due to irritant gas
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
- Other poisoning – colchicine, copper sulfate, lead, dinitrophenols, naphthalene, thallium, pyrogallic acid, arsenic, phosphine
- Snake (eg, pit viper snake, coral snake) or spider bites
- Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura / hemolytic uremic syndrome
- Hemolytic anemia
- Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
- Viral hepatitis (hepatitis A, B, C)
- Anticholinergic syndrome
- Cholinergic syndrome
- Opioid withdrawal
- Porphyria (eg, acute intermittent porphyria)