Vitiligo - Anogenital in
Vitiligo may accompany halo nevi. New-onset vitiligo may be seen in patients with metastatic melanoma. It can occur spontaneously and may herald metastatic disease, or it can be triggered by immunotherapy such as with BRAF inhibitors or PD-1 inhibitors. In the latter setting, it is considered a good prognostic sign. Rarely, vitiligo may be associated with uveitis.
Vitiligo occurs in equal proportions regardless of age, sex, or ethnicity. The natural progression of the disease is unpredictable, ranging from insidious to rapid in onset. Years of stable, nonprogressive disease can be observed with the disease subsequently taking an unexpected rapid trajectory.
While the precise etiology of vitiligo remains debated, two leading hypotheses include the following: 1) a host attack on normal melanocytes; and 2) intrinsic melanocyte defects. Genetic predisposition and trauma are other risk factors for vitiligo development. Exposure to depigmenting agents causes a vitiligo-like leukoderma in susceptible individuals. While the majority of vitiligo patients are otherwise healthy, an association with autoimmune thyroid dysfunction (hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism) has been demonstrated. In new onset vitiligo patients with systemic symptoms, thyroid screening with antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody and a serum thyrotropin is recommended. Additional associations include endocrinopathies, such as diabetes mellitus and Addison disease, along with other autoimmune processes. Rarely, it may exist as part of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, particularly a type III syndrome (eg, Hashimoto thyroiditis, vitiligo, or alopecia areata and/or another organ-specific autoimmune disease).
L80 – Vitiligo
56727007 – Vitiligo
- A history of prior trauma or skin inflammation can usually be elicited in cases of post-inflammatory hypopigmentation.
- Albinism, piebaldism, and other genetic disorders – Begin in infancy.
- Morphea – Look for sclerotic plaques.
- Lichen sclerosus – Look for sclerotic plaques, often in the genital area; can be severely pruritic.
- Chemical leukoderma or drug-induced hypopigmentation – Look for history of chemical use and/or topical corticosteroids.