SynopsisCodesLook ForDiagnostic PearlsDifferential Diagnosis & PitfallsBest TestsManagement PearlsTherapyDrug Reaction DataReferences
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed


Contributors: Michael W. Winter MD, Paritosh Prasad MD
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed


A bezoar is an accumulation of unabsorbed, undigested matter in the digestive tract that hardens and coalesces to form a solid mass. Typically, this occurs in the stomach with extension into the duodenum, but a bezoar can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract. It can be composed of different materials, commonly seeds, fiber, vegetable matter (phytobezoar), hair (trichobezoar), or medications (pharmacobezoar). Bezoars are associated with trichotillomania and other psychiatric disorders, pica, dehydration, opiate or anticholinergic use, and impaired gastric motility. Additionally, children with autism or developmental delay may be at increased risk.

A bezoar may be asymptomatic or cause symptoms due to partial or complete gastric obstruction. These symptoms include epigastric pain, anorexia, early satiety, nausea, or emesis. A palpable abdominal mass may be present in some cases.

Related topic: small bowel obstruction


T18.9XXA – Foreign body of alimentary tract, part unspecified, initial encounter

235677003 – Bezoar

Look For

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Diagnostic Pearls

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Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease
  • Esophagitis
  • Gastritis
  • Peptic ulcer disease
  • Gastroparesis
  • Malignancy: Gastric cancer, Lymphoma, Pancreatic carcinoma
  • Ménétrier disease
  • Celiac disease

Best Tests

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Management Pearls

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Drug Reaction Data

Below is a list of drugs with literature evidence indicating an adverse association with this diagnosis. The list is continually updated through ongoing research and new medication approvals. Click on Citations to sort by number of citations or click on Medication to sort the medications alphabetically.

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Last Reviewed:07/02/2018
Last Updated:09/29/2020
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A medical illustration showing key findings of Bezoar : Vomiting, Abdominal distension, Abdominal mass, Epigastric pain, Halitosis, Compulsive behavior
Copyright © 2024 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.