Diabetes mellitus type 1 in Adult
Patients may present with symptoms of hyperglycemia such as weight loss, polyuria, polydipsia, fatigue, nocturnal enuresis, and blurry vision. T1DM patients may present with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a state of severe dehydration and acidemia due to insulin deficiency. Symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, emesis, inattention, confusion, and even coma in the setting of hyperglycemia and elevated anion gap. DKA is often associated with compensatory hyperventilation (Kussmaul respiration) in the setting of primary metabolic acidosis and a fruity breath odor.
The pathogenesis appears to be rooted in a genetic component that interacts with an environmental insult in most cases. The incidence of T1DM has been increasing in the United States over the last several decades, with 2-3 new cases per 10 000 person years. There have been several reports about increased incidence of T1DM following acute COVID-19 infections.
Genetic risks (HLA haplotype and other identified genes) for T1DM account for almost 40%-50% of cases. An early study suggests that teplizumab delayed progression to clinical T1DM in genetic high-risk populations.
Related topics: bullosis diabeticorum, diabetes mellitus type 2, diabetic dermopathy, diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic vulvitis, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), neurogenic ulcer
E10.9 – Type 1 diabetes mellitus without complications
46635009 – Diabetes Mellitus Type I
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus
- Hormonal tumors and secondary hyperglycemia (pheochromocytoma, Cushing syndrome, acromegaly, glucagonoma)
- Secondary hyperglycemia due to glucocorticoid use
- Addison disease
- Graves disease
- Hashimoto thyroiditis
- Chronic pancreatitis
- Thiazide diuretics, phenytoin leading to reduced insulin secretion / drug-induced hyperglycemia
- Vitamin B12 deficiency
- Alcohol use disorder
- Cystic fibrosis